|Enter a value in the left or right box.
The calculator works in both directions of the ↔ sign.
The localisation curves are defined by empirical values after Sengpiel:
|Direction of phantom image b1||0 %||25 %||50 %||75 %||100 %|
|Level difference Δ L||0 dB||3 dB||6.5 dB||11 dB||18 dB|
|Direction of phantom image b2||0 %||25 %||50 %||75 %||100 %|
|Time difference Δ t||0 ms||0.23 ms||0.48 ms||0.81 ms||1.5 ms|
|In 1992, these values of 25 test subjects (students) in the Teldec control room (B & W
Matrix™ 801 Series 3) were determined with test signals of speech, and a Beethoven
string quartet, so without the usual higher-frequency unmusical clicks. There was also
found the little known effect of left localisation shift (left-hand twist stereo hearing).
The "stereo base" is the loudspeaker base in stereo reproduction, that is the image width between two speakers in stereo configuration, when the listener is ideally located in a corner of the stereo equilateral triangle.
Direction of phantom image b1 in dependence of interchannel level difference Δ L
Direction of phantom image b2 in dependence of interchannel time difference Δ t
Equations for the level difference and time difference localisation curve
Phantom source image - Simonsen and Sengpiel for comparison - 1
Phantom source image - Wittek/Theile and Sengpiel for comparison - 2
Visualization of all Microphone Systems with two microphones
Duplex-Theorie von Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt) - German